Airway and food pipe diseases

Important and common airway and food pipe (Oesophageal) problems: Please click the following links for detailed information.

Airway Problems:

  1. Asthma: A chronic condition causing inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing.
  2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Includes conditions like chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which cause obstructed airflow from the lungs.
  3. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchial tubes, often causing coughing and difficulty breathing.
  4. Laryngotracheal Stenosis: Narrowing of the airway at the level of the larynx or trachea, which can be congenital or acquired.
  5. Tracheomalacia: A condition where the trachea’s walls are weak, leading to airway collapse.
  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA): A disorder where throat muscles intermittently relax and block the airway during sleep.
  7. Foreign Body Aspiration: Inhaling objects into the airways, a common emergency in children.

Esophageal Problems:

  1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A chronic condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
  2. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophagus, often caused by acid reflux or infection.
  3. Achalasia: A disorder making it difficult for food and liquid to pass into the stomach due to the esophagus failing to relax.
  4. Esophageal Varices: Enlarged veins in the esophagus, often due to liver disease, which can bleed severely.
  5. Esophageal Stricture: Narrowing of the esophagus, often due to scarring from acid reflux or other injuries.
  6. Barrett’s Esophagus: A condition where the esophageal lining changes, increasing the risk of esophageal cancer.
  7. Esophageal Cancer: A serious form of cancer that occurs in the esophagus.

Both airway and esophageal problems can significantly impact breathing, swallowing, and overall quality of life. They require accurate diagnosis and appropriate management, which can range from lifestyle modifications and medications to surgical interventions.