Deafness is typically defined as the partial or total inability to hear. It can range from mild to severe, and it can affect one or both ears. The causes of deafness can be classified into two main categories: conductive and sensorineural.

Conductive hearing loss occurs when there is an obstruction or damage to the outer or middle ear that prevents sound from being conducted to the inner ear. Common causes include earwax buildup, infections like otitis media, perforated eardrum, fluid in the ear, or abnormalities in the ear’s structure.


Prevention strategies for deafness are varied and depend on the cause. They can include avoiding exposure to loud noises, maintaining good ear hygiene, managing chronic health issues, and immunization against certain infections. Early diagnosis and intervention, such as the use of hearing aids or cochlear implants, can also help mitigate the impact of hearing loss.

Sensorineural hearing loss is the result of damage to the hair cells in the cochlea (inner ear) or the auditory nerve, which impedes the transmission of sound signals to the brain. This type of deafness can be caused by aging, exposure to loud noises, head trauma, viruses, certain diseases, and genetic factors.

Mixed hearing loss is when both conductive and sensorineural issues are present. Additionally, some other causes of deafness can include certain medications that are toxic to the auditory system, and illnesses during pregnancy that affect the developing fetus.

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